Phonics: The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences.
Decoding: The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences; also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
Sound to Symbol: Phonics instruction that matches sounds to letters.
STUDENTS SHOULD DEMONSTRATE THESE SKILLS AT THE END OF FIRST GRADE:
Letter-Sound and Letter-Combination Knowledge
Produces the sounds associated with all individual letters fluently (e.g., 1 letter-sound per second).
Produces the sounds that correspond to frequently used letter combinations (e.g., sh, er, th).
Decoding (Sounding Out Words)
Decodes (sounds out and blends) words with consonant blends (e.g., mask, slip, play).
Decodes (sounds out and blends) words with letter combinations accurately (diagraphs: fish, bath, chin; common letter combinations: book, farm, toy).
Uses knowledge of individual letter-sound correspondences and letter-combinations to read regular monosyllabic words fluently (e.g., mask, skip, play, fish, them, chin, at a rate of one word every 1 to 1.5 seconds).
Reads words with common words parts (e.g., ing, all, ike).